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Climate Change Adaptation: Coastal and Water Sector There were two projects in Tonga funded under the PASAP Implementation of the JNAP Activity 2.1. in relation to undertake LIDAR (light detection and ranging) survey to acquire a high resolution digital elevation model of topographic and bathymetric data. (Budget AUD4m) Coastal Inundation Modeling as Phase 2 of this assistance to be implemented with DCCEE, early 2013.(Budget: AUD$562,000) The three major components of this program Coastal Zone Assessment Water Resources Assessment (underground and rainwater?) Socio-economic Assessment Preliminary findings were presented to PASAP Technical Working Group (3 October 2012), Ha’apai Development Committee , Governor of Ha’apai and people of Lifuka (5 October 2012). Final Report was presented in March 2013.
Straight after the endorsement of the JNAP on CCADRM by Cabinet, ACP-EU as coordinated by SOPAC had secured funding to implement the following JNAP actions;
Objectives: 1. Improved good governance for climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. (2.) Enhanced technical knowledge base, information, education and understanding of climate change adaptation and effective disaster risk management. (3.) Analysis and assessments of vulnerability to climate impacts and disaster risks. (4.) Enhanced community preparedness and resilience to impacts of all disasters
As part of the Australian Government's International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI), the Pacific Adaptation Strategies Assistance Program (PASAP) and its successor, the Pacific- Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program, aim to strengthen partner country capacity to assess vulnerability to climate change and develop robust adaptation strategies. Discussions during 2010 between the Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE) and Tonga's Joint National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management 2012-2015 (JNAP). Action 2.1 specifies the need for high resolution topographic and bathymetric data, and mapping of vulnerable coastal areas of Tongatapu. The second pahse of this project will develop capacity in relevant Government of Tonga agencies to use coastal elevation data to understand risks from sea level rise associated with climate change. The secound phase of work will also provide the IT infrastructure to store and use the data. Broader communication with in-country stakeholders to raise awareness of the new data is also proposed. Simple coastal inundation models development during the training will be used to support an initial risk assessment of priority coastal areas of Tongatapu.
As part of the Australian Government's International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI), the Pacific Adaptation Strategies Assistance Program (PASAP) and its successor, the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program, aim to strengthen partner country capacity to assess vulnerability to climate change and develop robust adaptation strategies. Discussions during 2010 between the Australian Government Department of Cliamte Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE) and Tonga's Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MECC) highlighted the potential for supporting Action 2.1 of Tonga's Joint National Action Plan on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management 2012-2015 (JNAP). Action 2.1 specifies the need for high resolution imagery was also captured with the LiDAR. The surveys were completed in Octorber 2011 and the data was processed to produce high resolution digital elevation models (DEMS) and other derived products. Phase one also assessed institutional technical capability whithin the Government of Tonga to receive and use the elevation data, and scoped capacity building requirements to sustainably use the data for coastal inundation modelling and risk assessment.
Objectives: Captured high resolution topographic and bathymetric data of Tongatapu and Lifuka through airborne LiDAR surveys
The Pacific Climate Change Science Program is part of the Australian's International Clilmate Change Adaptation Initiative which was launched in 2008 to meet high priority adaptation needs of vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly Pacific island nations and East Timor. There are 15 partner countries involved in the Pacific Climate Change Science Program. The PCCSP is supported by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) in collaboration with the Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE). It is delivered by the Bureau of Meteorology and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CRISRO), through their research partnership in the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR). The program also works in close cooperation with regional Pacific organisations and other research institutions including Secretariat of the Pacifc Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the University of the South Pacific (USP). The PCCSP overall aim is to help the partner countries better their understand of past, curent and future climate and build capacity in climate science within these countries. The PCCSP is assisting the region address two key principles of the Pacific Ilsands Framework for Action on Climate Change 2006-2015; firstly, improving the understanding of climate change and secondly, the provision of education, training and awareness. These also relate to JNAP Goal 2 (Enhanced Technical Knowledge base, information, education and understanding of climate change adpatation and effective disaster risk management & Goal 3 (Analysis and assessments of vulnerability to climate chagne impacts and disaster risks.
Objectives: Is to help the partner countries better their understand of past, current and future climate and build capacity in climate science within these countries.
Mangrove rehabilitation and conservation/ Ecosystem Based Adaptation The project’s overarching objective is to help Pacific Islanders effectively manage their mangrove and associated coastal ecosystems to support/enhance livelihoods and build resilience to the potential consequences of climate change and variability on coastal areas. The MESCAL project promoted joint management and conservation of mangrove ecosystems in select areas of Tongatapu. The geographical focus of this project is limited in certain area of Tongatapu Villages surrounding the Fanga’uta Lagoon. The project provided valuable inputs especially for the formulation of “Living with the Sea Best Practice” guideline proposed under Component 1 and when the guideline will be disseminated as part of Component 3. Effectiveness of the MESCAL project will also be captured and stored in the centrally managed database developed under Component 2.
To improve good governance for effective management, coordination, implementation and financing of climate change adaptation and disaster risk initiatives in Tonga
The Kingdom of Tonga is a large tropical archipelago of 169 is- lands spread over 700,000 square kilometres of the western South Pacific Ocean. Tonga lies just west of the International Date Line, directly south of Samoa and north of New Zealand. Most of the population lives in low-lying areas. In Western Tongatapu, parts of the communities lay less than two metres above sea level rendering properties vulnerable to flooding and coastal erosion caused by sea level rise, storm surge, heavy rain and catastrophic events such as tsunamis and cyclones. House-holds in this district tend to be of low economic means and tend to have limited ability to adapt or relocate The EU-GIZ ACSE programme helps people in 15 Pacific Island countries address two common challenges: adapting to climate change and reducing their dependence on fossil fuels. GIZ is supporting the Government of Tonga and its dedicated project team to implement coastal protection trials in selected areas of Western Tongatapu. The team is working in close part- nership with the people of the Hihifo District.
Objectives: The project aims to increase resilience of six coastal communities in Western Tongatapu to climate change impacts and to sustain their livelihoods
Objectives: The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was established in 2010 by the conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to which Tonga acceded to. Green Climate Fund start here in Tonga on 5 February 2018 aim to Establishing and strengthening National Designated Authorities or Focal Points; Developing strategic frameworks for engagement with the GCF, including the preparation of country programmes
Project Goal: Enhance the ability of climate change resilience and adaptation planning in the Pacific, by supporting the implementation of a regional approach to climate change information management.