The Kingdom of Tonga is a large tropical archipelago of 169 is- lands spread over 700,000 square kilometres of the western South Pacific Ocean. Tonga lies just west of the International Date Line, directly south of Samoa and north of New Zealand. Most of the population lives in low-lying areas. In Western Tongatapu, parts of the communities lay less than two metres above sea level rendering properties vulnerable to flooding and coastal erosion caused by sea level rise, storm surge, heavy rain and catastrophic events such as tsunamis and cyclones. House-holds in this district tend to be of low economic means and tend to have limited ability to adapt or relocate The EU-GIZ ACSE programme helps people in 15 Pacific Island countries address two common challenges: adapting to climate change and reducing their dependence on fossil fuels. GIZ is supporting the Government of Tonga and its dedicated project team to implement coastal protection trials in selected areas of Western Tongatapu. The team is working in close part- nership with the people of the Hihifo District.
Final report for the PASAP Project Assessing vulnerability and adaption to sea- level rise on Lifuka Island, Ha’apai, Tonga. It presents a synthesis of technical results and social insights, cost–benefit analyses and adaptation options. The geoscientific component of the Lifuka project involved assessments of shoreline change, groundwater resources, oceanography, the shallow-water marine habitat, and beach sediment composition and transport. The social science component involved a household survey to document a range of issues, including domestic water harvesting reliance and use, the impacts of a 2010 cyclone, household sanitation, beach mining, and perceptions of coastal change. A community engagement strategy and an accompanying manual were developed. Focus-group discussions identified community values and the social impact of sea-level rise and coastal erosion since the 2006 earthquake. An engineering report explored three shoreline protection options. Water-level scenarios to 2100 were developed and presented in map form, showing which existing homes and amenities would be affected. In addition, the possible storm surge associated with a 1:100 year storm event on Lifuka was modelled and hazard zones identified. The model indicated that a 1:100 year event would likely inundate, to varying degrees, the lowest-lying part of the western coast where most homes and amenities are located. More detailed, individual technical reports are also available. See Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation to Sea-level Rise: Lifuka Island, Ha'apai, Tonga Technical Reports.
Assessing vulnerability and adaption to sea-level rise on Lifuka Island, Ha’apai, Tonga: technical reports
SPC SOPAC Technical reports associated with the project Assessing vulnerability and adaptation to sea-level rise: Lifuka Island, Ha’apai, Tonga. The Lifuka project was developed in conjunction with the Government of Tonga Ministry for Lands, Survey, Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change (MLSNRECC), PASAP and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) to develop an evidenced-based strategy for adapting to sea-level rise in Lifuka Island. Many technical reports were written for the project on Lifuka Island. They are listed below. They complement, and should be read in conjunction with, the final report : Rising oceans, changing lives. B 1: Physical resources1.1: Shoreline assessment (Zulfikar Begg and Jens Krüger)1.2: Groundwater resources assessment (Peter Sinclair, Amit Singh, Quddus Fielea, Kate Hyland, A‘pai Moala)1.3: Oceanographic assessment (Aseri Baleilevuka, Jens Kruger, Salesh Kumar, Zulfikar Begg and Herve Damlamian)1.4: Benthic habitat assessment (Aseri Baleilevuka, Jens Krüger, Salesh Kumar, Zulfikar Begg and Poasi Ngaluafe)1.5: Beach sediment assessment (Zulfikar Begg and Jens Krüger)1.6: Household survey to assess vulnerabilities to water resources and coastal erosion and inundation (Peter Sinclair, Amit Singh, Anja Grujovic, Jens Kruger, Zulfikar Begg, Paula Holland, and Brigitte Leduc)
This report has been prepared to analyze potential significant effects associated with the construction of a replacement causeway between Lifuka and Foa Islands, Kingdom of Tonga. Mitigation measures are suggested on potentially significant impacts together with discussions on alternative design of the structure in order to reduce its impacts on coastal processes and coastal erosion witnessed on islands of Foa and Lifuka.
This is an Environmental Impact Assessment report on Tonga Power Limited’s proposed micro wind turbine project for Pangai, Lifuka Island, Ha’apai Group. The principal objective is to improve energy supply with an increasing use of renewable energy in Ha’apai. Furthermore, this project will also serve as workability of wind power in Ha’apai. Prepared for: TONGA POWER LIMITED Nuku’alofa Kingdom of Tonga
Environmental Impact Assessment of a New Facility for the Conversion of Waste Plastic into Petroleum
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF A NEW FACILITY FOR THE CONVERSION OF WASTE PLASTIC INTO PETROLEUM Analyzing the potential environmental impact of construction a facility to convert waste plastic into petroleum products, at Tatakamotonga, Tongatapu. The report documents existing environment, possible impacts with suggested mitigation measures to minimize impact to human life, natural environment and ground water resources in the immediate area. Type of Action The proposed action is to construct a facility to convert waste plastic into Petroleum products. Description of the Proposed Action Eagle Pacific Enterprises has a special interest in developing the Kingdom’s economy and is proposing to create a factory to manufacture crude oil from waste plastic, refining it into products such as diesel. Essentially, the plant will consist of two processes: (1) recycle plastic to create “sweet” crude oil (low sulfur without little contaminants), and (2) refine the oil into consumer and business grade fuel (diesel, gasoline, etc.). The initial target is to supply all of Tonga Power Board diesel fuel requirement which is estimated at 1/3 of total fuel supply to Tonga. This in effect will reduce waste plastic in the environment, fuel pollution and energy prices significantly.
Proposed Rock Revetment to Replace Seawall from Palace to Wharf at Lifuka, Ha'apai, Kingdom of Tonga
This report has been prepared to analyze potential environmental effects associated with the construction of a Rock Revetment to replace the seawall from the Palace to the southern end of the new wharf at Lifuka, Ha'apai. Mitigation measures are suggested on potentially significant impacts together with discussions on two other alternatives to solve the chronic coastal erosion on the western coastline of Lifuka.
The report provides a foundation to guide coastal managers, coastal planners, coastal engineers, decision makers and disaster managers throughout the Pacific in their efforts to understand the various measures they can take to reduce coastal erosion. The goal is to devise ‘no regret’ strategies using effective interventions to protect the Pacific coasts, ecosystems and basic vital infrastructure. Coastal protection interventions in the Pacific basically fall into two categories: non-structural adaptation and structural adaptation approaches, both of which are covered in this report. Selected examples of current coastal protection interventions are presented in pictorial form, including examples from Tonga (Chapter 4.15). Examples from the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Guam, Kiribati , Nauru, Niue, the Northern Marianas, Samoa, the Republic of Marshall Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Tuvalu, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Timor Leste are also included. Some examples of unsuccessful interventions were also captured.
This report provides the Final output for SPC contract CC/13/95 Final Engineering Design and Cost for Coastal Protection Works in Eastern Tongatapu, Tonga; the Draft Design Document describing the two coastal protection options, justification of their selection, prioritisation of the options, engineering drawings and specifications, detailed costs and schedule for completion of works for each option. SPC, specifically the Global Climate Change Alliance: Pacific Small Island States (GCCA:PSIS) project in the Strategic Engagement Policy and Planning Facility, has commissioned eCoast Marine Consulting and Research to provide final engineering design and costing for coastal protection works in eastern Tongatapu.
Global Climate Change Alliance: Pacific Small Island States Case Study: Best practice coastal protection in Tonga
This case study is one of three produced as part of the Global Climate Change Alliance: Pacific Small Island States post-project evaluation. The Global Climate Change Alliance: Pacific Small Island States (GCCA: PSIS) Project is a European Union (EU) funded initiative to assist nine smaller Pacific Island states (Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Tonga and Tuvalu ) to adapt to climate change. The project was implemented by the Pacific Community (SPC), with an implementation period from July 2011 through to November 2016 . The overall objective of the project was to support the governments of nine small island states of the Pacific in their efforts to tackle the adverse effects of climate change. The GCCA: PSIS project consisted of on-ground climate change adaptation activities in specific sectors – coastal protection, marine resources, health, agriculture, and freshwater; supported by mainstreaming of climate change into national and sectoral policies, plans, budgets and procedures. The project also provided technical assistance, capacity building and supported regional collaboration. The case study presented here captures key best practices found by the evaluation consultants during their field trip to Tonga. The SPC GCCA: PSIS project in Tongatapu successfully implemented two new coastal protection measures. Whilst the long term impact of these measures is still unknown, the processes the project followed to design, implement and monitor the project can be considered best practices that should be replicated in future coastal protection projects.
In Tonga, the PACC project is building resilient water supply systems in the district of Hihifo on Tongatapu. Adaptation measures demonstrated by the project include upgrading water infrastructure to improve water capture and storage, increasing the options for sourcing and distributing water, and improving water quality. This report describes the process of planning and developing the project, through design and implementation, to monitoring and evaluation. It includes an important section on lessons learned and recommended best practices, with the hope that these will be useful to future climate change adaptation and/or water resources projects in the Pacific. The guide is mainly directed at government agencies, local non-governmental organisations (NGOs), regional organisations and donor agencies interested in developing similar projects in other parts of Tonga, or other Pacific island countries.
Rapid Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessments of six Communities in Tongatapu, Ha’apai, and Vava’u, Tonga
A rapid vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) assessment was carried by a team consisting of the Tonga InCountry Coordinator (ICC) and five assistant officers that were trained in the Tonga sub-regional workshop. The assessment was carried out in three phases. Phase 1 was carried out by the ICC and 3 assistants in Tongatapu, from 17th to the 21st of September 2012. Phase 2 involved the ICC and two assistants in Ha’afeva, from 24th to the 27th of September 2012. Phase 3 also involved the ICC and two other officers in Vava’u from 1st to the 5th of October. Three villages were assessed in Tongatapu, namely Popua, Tatakamotonga and Sopu. Ha’afeva Island was chosen from the Vahelulunga in the Ha’apai group of islands. Tu’anekivale village from ‘Uta Vava’u and Ovaka from Vahemotu in the Vava’u group of islands. The main objectives were to (i) assess the level of vulnerability of the sites identified, (ii) assess the status of the water supply, health and sanitation, food supply and security, energy sources, natural and coastal resources, sources of income, governance and socio-economic well-being (iii) rank these vulnerabilities to determine which three sites will be chosen as demonstration sites from the six being assessed. This V&A assessment was carried out by the Pacific Centre for Environment and Sustainable Development (PACE_SD), USP, and was funded by the European Union (EU) Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) for addressing climate change adaptation (CCA) in the Pacific.